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Dynamic Learning Maps Consortium. (2022, December). 2021–2022 Technical Manual Update—Science. University of Kansas, Accessible Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Systems.


The publication of this technical manual update builds on the documentation presented in the 2015–2016 Technical Manual—Science and annual technical manual updates. This document represents further contributions to a body of work in the service of supporting a meaningful assessment system designed to serve students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. Hundreds of people have contributed to this undertaking. We acknowledge them all for their contributions.

Many contributors made the writing of this technical manual update possible. Dynamic Learning Maps® (DLM®) staff who made significant writing contributions to this technical manual update are listed below with gratitude.

W. Jake Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Psychometrics
Amy K. Clark, Ph.D., Associate Director for Operational Research
Brooke Nash, Ph.D., Associate Director for Psychometrics

The authors also wish to acknowledge Ashley Hirt, Jeffrey Hoover, Elizabeth Kavitsky, Jennifer Kobrin, and Noelle Pablo for their role in developing, organizing, and compiling this manual. The authors also wish to acknowledge Brianna Beitling, Amber Cavasos, Alson Cole, Karen Erickson, Zachary Hopper, Sarah Koebley, Jessica Lancaster, Mari Langas, and Delaney Wilson for their contributions to this manual. Finally, the authors wish to thank Kristy Bledsoe, Lucas Cooper, Justin Dean, Aaron Gates, Whitney Lohrenz, and Sara Lundberg for their editing and project management work. For a list of project staff who supported the development of this manual through key contributions to design, development, or implementation of the Dynamic Learning Maps Alternate Assessment System, please see the 2015–2016 Technical Manual—Science, and the subsequent annual technical manual updates.

We are also grateful for the contributions of the members of the DLM Technical Advisory Committee who graciously provided their expertise and feedback on the DLM System. Members of the Technical Advisory Committee during the 2021–2022 operational year include:

Russell Almond, Ph.D., Florida State University
Karla Egan, Ph.D., EdMetric
Claudia Flowers, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Robert Henson, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Joan Herman, Ed.D., University of California, Los Angeles
James Pellegrino, Ph.D., University of Illinois Chicago
Edward Roeber, Ph.D., Michigan Assessment Consortium
David Williamson, Ph.D., The College Board
Phoebe Winter, Ph.D., Independent Consultant